Ctrip's annual report on Form 20-F includes its audited consolidated financial statements for the years ended December 31, 2016, 2017 and 2018.
As of the date of this annual report, the equity holding structures of each of our significant consolidated affiliated Chinese entities are as follows:
* Maohua Sun and Min Fan owned 10.2% and 89.8%, respectively, of Ctrip Commerce.
* Ctrip Commerce owned 100% of Shanghai Huacheng.
* Min Fan and Qi Shi owned 99.5% and 0.5%, respectively, of Chengdu Ctrip.
* Hui Cao and Hui Wang owned 60% and 40%, respectively, of Qunar Beijing.
In May 2015, we acquired approximately 38% share capital of eLong, Inc. In May 2016, eLong, Inc. completed its going-private transaction and merger with E-dragon Holdings Limited, or eLong. In December 2017, eLong and Tongcheng Network Technology Co., Ltd., or LY.com, announced an agreement to merge and form Tongcheng-Elong Holdings Limited (SEHK: 0780), which was consummated in March 2018. In exchange for our prior holdings in eLong, we received an equity method investment in the enlarged group.
In October 2015, we completed a share exchange transaction with Baidu, pursuant to which Baidu exchanged approximately 179 million Class A ordinary shares and approximately 11 million Class B ordinary shares of Qunar, beneficially owned by Baidu prior to the consummation of the transaction for our approximately 11 million newly-issued ordinary shares. Immediately after the closing of the transaction, Baidu owned our ordinary shares representing approximately 25% of our aggregate voting interest, and we owned Class B ordinary shares of Qunar representing approximately 45% of Qunar’s aggregate voting interest. Robin Yanhong Li, Baidu’s chairman has been appointed to our board of directors.
In January 2016, we invested US$180 million in MakeMyTrip Limited, or MakeMyTrip, India’s largest online travel company, via convertible notes, and subsequently appointed a director to MakeMyTrip’s board of directors. In October 2016, we converted all of the outstanding principal amount of convertible notes into ordinary shares of MakeMyTrip. In May 2017, we further invested approximately US$33 million in MakeMyTrip by subscribing for 916,666 of its ordinary shares.
In April 2016, we announced strategic collaboration with China Eastern Airlines Corporation Limited, or China Eastern Airlines, one of China’s three major air transportation groups, on a broad range of products and services. In June 2016, we invested approximately RMB3.0 billion in approximately 466 million A shares of China Eastern Airlines in a private placement.
In December 2016, we consummated an acquisition transaction whereby shares held by nearly all of the shareholders of Skyscanner, a leading global travel search site headquartered in Edinburgh, the United Kingdom, were acquired by Ctrip. The total purchase consideration for the acquisition of Skyscanner was approximately £1.4 billion, which consists of £1.2 billion in cash and the remainder in our ordinary shares.
In December 2016, in connection with our share exchange transaction with BTG Hotels (Group) Co., Ltd., or BTG, a PRC joint stock company that is listed on the Shanghai Stock Exchange and principally engaged in the management of hotels and tourism destinations, and Homeinns Hotel Group, or Homeinns, we exchanged our previously held equity interest in Homeinns for 22% equity interest of BTG.
In May 2018, we acquired substantially all of the remaining equity interest of an offline travel agency company in which we previously held approximately 48% equity interest for the consideration of RMB198 million in cash and 1.9% non-controlling interest of one of our subsidiaries with the fair value of RMB399 million.
Total revenues grew from RMB7.8 billion in 2014 to RMB31.1 billion (US$4.5 billion) in 2018, representing a compound annual growth rate of 41.4%.
Revenues from our accommodation reservation business increased by 21% to RMB11.6 billion (US$1.7 billion) in 2018 from RMB9.5 billion in 2017, primarily driven by an increase in accommodation reservation volume.
Revenues from our accommodation reservation business increased by 30% to RMB9.5 billion in 2017 from RMB7.3 billion in 2016, primarily driven by an increase in accommodation reservation volume.
Revenues from our transportation ticketing business increased by 6% to RMB12.9 billion (US$1.9 billion) in 2018 from RMB12.2 billion in 2017, primarily due to an increase in ticketing volume.
Revenues from our transportation ticketing business increased by 38% to RMB12.2 billion in 2017 from RMB8.8 billion in 2016, primarily due to an increase in ticketing volume.
Sales and Marketing
Sales and marketing expenses increased by 16% to RMB9.6 billion (US$1.4 billion) in 2018 from RMB8.3 billion in 2017, primarily attributable to an increase in sales and marketing related activities. Our advertising expenses increased from RMB5.1 billion in 2017 to RMB6.0 billion (US$871 million) in 2018.
Sales and marketing expenses increased by 42% to RMB8.3 billion in 2017 from RMB5.9 billion in 2016, primarily attributable to an increase in promotion related activities. Our advertising expenses increased from RMB2.8 billion in 2016 to RMB5.1 billion in 2017.
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